The properties of steel which determine the application and value. And the mechanical properties, chemical properties, physical properties and shop characteristic are the most important points.
The power of resisting deformation and fracture during the time of subject to external forces under certain temperature conditions. There are two types of steel absorbing the load, including static and dynamic. Including individually or simultaneously subjects the tensile stress, compressive stress, bending stress, shear stress, torsional stress, and friction, vibration, shock. So there are some points to measure the mechanical properties of steel.
This is the maximum ability to characterize the material against deformation and damage under external forces. The tensile strength limit (σb), buckling strength limit (σbb), compressive resistance limit (σbc) and etc could show how great strength it is. And People always use the tensile test to measure. Use the steel sample to stretch on a tensile tester until it was broken.
The maximum ability of steel to produce permanent deformation but not be broken.
Toughness is the power of steel resists damage under impact load. People usually use impact test to measure it. When the steel sample is broken by the impact load on the specified type of impact tester. Then the impact energy consumed per unit cross-sectional area on the fracture shows the toughness of the material.
The characteristic is called chemical properties, which is metal contact with other materials to cause a chemical reaction. The corrosion stability and oxidative stability are the points that people most need to concern. And in the properties of steel, corrosion stability means a lot for steel.
About physical properties, people need to care about the density, melting point, thermal expansivity, magnetism and electrical properties.
The adaptability of steel subjected all kinds of processing methods. People call it: shop characteristic. There are four main points:
It reflects the difficulty of cutting metal materials by cutting tools (such as turning, milling, planing, grinding and etc).
It shows the difficulty of steel is formed under pressure processing. For example the high or low plasticity at the condition of heating steel to a certain temperature. And the temperature range during the hot press working, the thermal conductivity and etc.
Reflecting the steel how easy to become foundry goods after melting and casting. During the melting state of steel, the fluidity, oxidizability, melting point and etc can show the castability of steel. Different steel types have different properties. People need to understand all of it to choose the right request for steel.
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