Alloy tool steel is the type of steel which was added certain alloy elements at the base of the carbon tool steel to get higher properties. Compare with the carbon tool steel, it has higher hardness, toughness, wear resistance, hardenability, and hot hardness. And it has more steel grades. The properties of them are various, which means it can satisfy easily all kinds of requirements for different tools. So, it can be used to make all kinds of cutting tools, measuring tools and molds with big size, complex shape and high requirements for properties.
The carbon content for alloy tool steel is much higher. Most of them are also belong to high carbon steel. The elements were added are W, Mo, Cr, V, Mn, Si and etc. If the total amount for alloy element is less than 5%, then it is a low alloy tool steel. If it is in the range of 5%-10%, then it is a medium alloy tool steel. But, if it is bigger than 10%, it belongs to high alloy tool steel.
At present, most of them are low alloy tool steel. According to the applications, they can be divided into cutting tool steel, measuring tool steel and mold steel(cold work mold steel, hot work mold steel). And the common heat treatment way for alloy tool steel is quenching and tempering in the low temperature. But the hot work mold steel has great toughness, so it usually takes the way of quenching and high-temperature tempering.
GB 9SiCr steel is also equivalent to DIN 90SiCr5 and BS BH21 steel. Its hardenability is better than chromium steel. The steel round bar with a 45mm – 50mm diameter can be hardened in the oil. It has good wear resistance and tempering stability. But its machinability is not good. The deformation during the heat treatment is small, but the decarburization tendency is higher.
It is widely used for cutting tools with high wearing resistance. Such as the screw tap, drills, broach, reamer and etc.
And GB 8MnSi steel is equivalent to DIN C75W3 steel. Its toughness, hardenability and wearing resistance are all better than carbon tool steel.
It is widely used to make hand saw, saw blade, cold-punching mold and other tools.
GB Cr06 is equivalent to ASTM W5, JIS SKS8, DIN 140Cr3 and NF 130Cr3. After the quenching, its hardness and wearing resistance will increase dramatically. But its hardenability is bad, it is brittle.
When it been through cold rolling for several times to become the thin steel strip, it can be used to make razors, scraper, nicking tools and etc.
GB Cr2 is also equivalent to ISO 100Cr2, ASTM L1, DIN 100Cr6, BS BL1. As the same, the hardness and wear resistance will get higher after the quenching. And the deformation during the quenching is not big, but the high-temperature plasticity is bad.
It always is used for cutting tools with low speed and lower hardness material. Including the lathe tool, milling cutter, reamer and etc. And it can be made the measure tools, gauge, eccentric and big size cold-punching mold.
GB W steel is equivalent to ASTM F1, UNS T60601, JIS SKS21, DIN 120W4, BS BF1 steel. It has better wear resistance and hardness than carbon tool steel after quenching. And its heat treatment deformation is small, it is not easy to have cracks for water hardening.
It is suitable for cutting tools with low cutting speed and lower temperature during work time. For example, the small twist drill, screw tap, saw blade, reamer and etc.
And GB Cr12 is also equivalent to ISO 210Cr12, ASTM D3, UNS T30403, JIS SKD1, DIN X210Cr12, BS BD3, NF Z200C12 steel. It is high carbon high chrome steel. It has high wear resistance, strength and hardenability. Its deformation during the quenching is small, but it is brittle. The thermal conductivity and high-temperature plasticity are not good.
It is widely used for molds with high wear resistance and not absorb impact. And also suitable for the cutting tools which are main processing the material with lower hardness. Such as the cold-punching mold, punches, reamer, lathe tool and etc.
GB Cr12MoV is equivalent to ASTM D2, JIS SKD11, DIN 165CrMoV46, BS BD2, NF Z200C12. The hardenability, hardness, strength, toughness of it is better than Cr12 after the quenching. The steel workpiece that its size of section is under 300mm – 400mm, which means it can be fully hardening. And the wear resistance and plasticity are good. The deformation is small, but the high-temperature plasticity is not good.
It is suitable for dies. Such as all kinds of piercing die, trimming die, wire-drawing die and etc.
GB Cr5Mo1V is equivalent to ISO 100CrMoV5, ASTM A2, UNS T30102, JIS SKD12, BS BA2, NF X100CrMoV5. The property of air quenched is great, and the size deformation of air quenching is small. The toughness is better than 9Mn2V and Cr12. Its carbide is small and equally distributed. And the wear resistance is good.
It is widely used to make cold work mold, punches and blanking die with the requirements of high wear resistance and toughness.
The equivalent grades for GB 9Mn2V are ISO 90MnV2, ASTM O2, UNS T31502, DIN 90MnV8, NF 90MnV8 and 80M80. Its characteristics are high hardening and wear resistance. Both of them is better than carbon tool steel. And the size deformation is small after the quenching.
It is a good material for the important spindle of grinder, cams, screw tap, reamer and etc.
GB 4Cr5MoSiV steel is equivalent to ASTM H11 H12, UNS T20811, JIS SKD6 SKD62, DIN X38CrMoV51 X37CrMoW51, BS BH11 BH12, NF X38CrMoV5 steel. It has high hardenability. In the medium temperature, its performance is good. The size deformation is small in heat treatment. And its thermal fatigue property is good.
So it is suitable for hot-extrusion die, bolt heading die, hammer forging die and etc.
GB 4Cr5MoSiV1 is equivalent to ISO 40CrMoV5, ASTM H13, UNS T20813, JIS SKD61, DIN X40CrMoV51, BS BH13, NF X40CrMoV5. It has great hardenability, you can quench hardening it in the air. The rate for deformation in the heat treatment is low, its properties and service life are higher than 3Cr2W8V steel.
Due to those great properties, it is widely used for hot-extrusion mold, forging press die and more.
Different alloy tool steel grade has own identity, that means they play a different role in the industry and life. If you need to buy alloy tool steel, please make sure what steel grade is your need in the perfect way, according to the requirements of hardness, toughness, strength, specification and more. Those things will impact the alloy steel price, that is the important thing you need to know.
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