AISI 1045 Steel Round Bar Sheet Plate, JIS S45C, DIN C45

AISI 1045 steel is high-quality medium-carbon steel with high strength. It also can be called JIS S45C and DIN C45 steel. It is usually used in normalized condition because of its bad hardenability. It needs to be quenching and tempering treatment to get higher mechanical performance. It is used to manufacture machine parts with high strength requirements. Such as gears, shafts, piston pins, and etc. 1045 Steel round bar sheet plate properties and heat treat as below.

1045 Steel Round Bar Sheet Plate Supply Range
Round BarDiameter: Max 800mm; Length: Max 9mBlack/Peeled/Machined(turned)/Polished(grounded)
Sheet/Plate/SlabThickness: Max 800mm; Width: Max 2300mm;
Length: Max 9m

1045 Steel Grade Equivalent Chart

Country USA Germany/UK/France JAPAN ISO
Standard ASTM A29/A29M-05 EN 10083/2-2006 JIS G4051-2009 ISO 683/18-1996
Grades 1045 C45(1.0503) S45C C45E4

1045 Steel Chemical Composition

STAND C(%) Mn(%) P(%) S(%) Si(%) Cr(%) Mo(%) Ni(%)
ASTM A29/A29M-05 0.43-0.50 0.60-0.90 Max 0.040 Max 0.050 Max 0.10 - - -
EN 10083/2-2006 0.42-0.50 0.50-0.80 Max 0.045 Max 0.045 Max 0.40 Max 0.40 Max 0.10 Max 0.40
JIS G4051-2009 0.42-0.48 0.60-0.90 Max 0.030 Max 0.035 0.15-0.35 - - ≤0.20
ISO 683/18-1996 0.42-0.50 0.50-0.80 ≤0.035 ≤0.035 0.10-0.40 - - -

1045 Steel Physical Properties

Physical Properties Metric Imperial
Density 7.87 g/cc 0.284 lb/in³

C45 Steel Mechanical Properties

Mechanical Properties Metric Imperial
Hardness, Brinell 163 163
Hardness, Knoop (Converted from Brinell hardness) 184 184
Hardness, Rockwell B (Converted from Brinell hardness) 84 84
Hardness, Vickers (Converted from Brinell hardness) 170 170
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 565 MPa 81900 psi
Tensile Strength, Yield 310 MPa 45000 psi
Elongation at Break (in 50 mm) 16.0 % 16.0 %
Reduction of Area 40.0 % 40.0 %
Modulus of Elasticity (Typical for steel) 200 GPa 29000 ksi
Bulk Modulus (Typical for steel) 140 GPa 20300 ksi
Poissons Ratio (Typical For Steel) 0.290 0.290
Shear Modulus (Typical for steel) 80 GPa 11600 ksi

C45 Steel Application


1045 steel is widely used for the industry application that required higher strength and wear resistance than low-carbon steel. And the typical applications are gears, shafts, rolls, crankshafts, sockets, bolts and etc.

C45 Steel Characteristics

1.It is carbon steel and has great weldability and machinability.
2.After normalized and hot rolled, it will get high strength and impact properties.
3.It has low hardenability and critical hardenability diameter is 12-17mm in the water. And there has a tendency to crack when water quenching.
4.The hydrogen welding and argon arc welding is good for it, but the gas welding is not. It is required to preheat before the welding, and stress relief annealing should be performed after welding.

1045 Steel Round Bar Sheet Plate Heat Treatment


Heat to 850°C – 1250°C (1562°F – 2282°F)
Hold until the temperature is uniform
Cool in furnace


Heat to 800°C – 850°C (1472°F – 1562°F)
Hold until the temperature is uniform
Cool in furnace.

C45 Steel Normalizing

Heat to 870°C – 920°C (1598°F-1688°F)
Hold until the temperature is uniform
Soak for 10 – 15 minutes
Cool in still air

Stress Relieving

Heat to 550°C – 660°C (1022°F – 1220°F)
Hold until the temperature is uniform
Soak for 1 hour per 25mm of section
Cool in still air


Heat to 820°C – 850°C (1508°F – 1562°F)
Hold until the temperature is uniform
Soak for 10 – 15 minutes per 25mm of section
Quench in water or brine


Re-heat to 400°C – 650°C (752°F – 1202°F ) as required
Hold until the temperature is uniform
Soak for 1 hour per 25mm of section
Cool in still air

C45 Steel Process Notes

1.The hardness is between HRC20~HRC30 after quenching and tempering.
2.After quenching, the hardness is between HRC55~58 and the limit value up to HRC62.
3.In order to make the steel performance stable, it should be processed and placed for 15-20 days before the use. The highest hardness for practical application is HRC55 (high-frequency quenching HRC58).
4.It is a high-quality carbon structural steel with low hardness. It is easy to cut, and it is used to make molds, guideposts, tips, templates and etc.
5.Do not use the heat treatment process of carburized and quenched.


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