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Differences Between 1.2311 Material and 1.2312 Material

Both 1.2311 steel and 1.2312 steel are pre-hardened plastic mold steels whose hardness is evenly distributed on a large cross-section, and are mainly used to manufacture molds and tool parts. They have many similarities, so when choosing 1.2311 material and 1.2312 material, you should first understand the differences between them, so that you can choose a more suitable and better steel for the project that needs to be applied.

This article will discuss the main differences between 1.2311 material and 1.2312 material in terms of chemical composition, hardness, mechanical properties, heat treatment and application,etc.

1. Chemical Composition

The 1.2311 material and the 1.2312 material are very similar in the chemical composition ranges of C, Mn, P, Cr, and Mo, and both contain higher carbon and chromium contents. The biggest difference is that the S content of the 1.2311 material is ≤ 0.03%, which is less than that of the 1.2312 steel, so the purity of the 1.2311 steel is higher, and it presents a high degree of microscopic purity and an excellent homogeneous structure. The increase of S content in 1.2312 steel can improve the cutting performance, but the content of S element needs to be strictly controlled. These small differences will affect the physical properties and application fields of steel, so the content of each component must be strictly controlled.

2. Hardness

According to different heat treatment conditions, the hardness will be different. For example, when the tempering temperature is 600°C, the hardness reaches 36 HRC; when the tempering temperature is 700°C, the hardness reaches 28 HRC. Usually, the hardness of 1.2311 material can reach 28-32 HRC after quenching and tempering treatment. The hardness of 1.2312 steel is generally in the range of 30-36HRC. This means that 1.2312 steel has a higher hardness, but the specific hardness depends on the heat treatment method and process parameters used.

3. Mechanical Properties

(1) Linear expansion coefficient at high temperature and quenched and tempered state

DIN 1.2311 Steel:
Temperature range: 20-200°C – 13 *10 -6 m/(m*K)
Temperature range: 20-300°C – 13,4 *10 -6 m/(m*K)

DIN 1.2312 Steel:
Temperature range: 20-200°C – 13 *10 -6 m/(m*K)
Temperature range: 20-300 °C – 13,7 *10 -6 m/(m*K)

(2)Thermal conductivity at high temperature and quenched and tempered state

1.2311 Material:
Test temperature: 150 °C – 34 W/(m*K)
Test temperature: 200 °C – 33,6 W/(m*K)
Test temperature: 250 °C – 32,9 W/(m*K)
Test temperature: 300 °C – 31,9 W/(m*K)

1.2312 Material:
Test temperature: 150 °C – 40,4 W/(m*K)
Test temperature: 200 °C – 40,4 W/(m*K)
Test temperature: 250 °C – 39,9 W/(m*K)
Test temperature: 300 °C – 39,0 W/(m*K)

4. Heat Treatment

The heat treatment process of 1.2311 material and 1.2312 material is two steps of quenching and tempering. The difference is that 1.2312 steel usually requires a higher quenching temperature, and the tempering temperature of 1.2311 steel is generally between 500-700 degrees Celsius. 1.2312 material adopts Low temperature tempering, the temperature is generally between 150-200 degrees Celsius. It should be noted that the needs and equipment of each manufacturer are different, so the temperature and time during the heat treatment process may vary, and the optimal treatment parameters need to be determined according to the specific material type and requirements.

5. Application

Depending on the chemical composition and heat treatment conditions, the properties of the 1.2311 material and the 1.2312 material will also be different, so the main uses are also different. For example, in the field of molds, 1.2311 steel is relatively low in hardness, which is suitable for some mold applications that do not require high hardness, such as for making injection molds, plastic molds and die-casting molds; while 1.2312 steel is relatively high in hardness , suitable for mold applications with high requirements on hardness and stress corrosion resistance, such as for manufacturing high-precision molds, hot die casting molds and extrusion molds, etc.

In general, there is not much difference between 1.2311 material and 1.2312 material, but slight differences will also affect the role played in practical applications. This information can help us better understand and use these two steels to meet The needs of different plastic mold manufacturing. Therefore, when selecting 1.2311 material product or 1.2312 product, the appropriate steel should be selected according to actual needs.


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